In an Acta Ophthalmologica analysis of 11 relevant articles, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 46 percent increased risk that offspring will develop strabismus—one of the most prevalent eye-related diseases among children. Maternal smoking of ?10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy was linked with a 79 percent increased risk of strabismus in offspring.
In children with strabismus, the eyes do not properly align with each other. This can contribute to visual impairment and emotional problems.
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